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Yiziphi izinto ezinhle kakhulu zamafutha abicah esingazazi?

Imikhiqizo eminingi empilweni ihlanganiswe kusuka kumikhiqizo yamakhemikhali. Le mikhiqizo isebenzisa izinzuzo zayo ekusetshenzisweni kwethu. Amafutha abicah ngokuvamile abhekisa kumkhiqizo oqondile we-polysiloxane ogcina isimo soketshezi ekamelweni lokushisa. Imvamisa iluketshezi olungenambala (noma olukhanyayo ngokukhanyayo), olungenaphunga, olungenabo ubuthi, olungagudluki, olungancibiliki emanzini, i-methanol, i-ethylene glycol, futhi ehambisana ne-benzene. , I-Dimethyl ether, i-carbon tetrachloride noma i-parafini iyancibilika ngokuhlanganyela, incibilika kancane ku-acetone, dioxane, ethanol ne-butanol. Ake ngingenise izindawo ezinhle kakhulu zika-oyili we-silicone.

Eyodwa. ukumelana nokushisa okuhle

Njengoba uchungechunge olukhulu lwe-molecule ye-polysiloxane yakhiwe nge--Si-O-Si- bond, inesakhiwo esifana nesama-polymer angaphili, futhi amandla ayo okubopha aphezulu kakhulu, ngakho-ke inokumelana nokushisa okuhle kakhulu.

Okubili. Ukuqina okuhle kwe-oxidation nokumelana nesimo sezulu

Abathathu. ukwahlukanisa okuhle kagesi

Amafutha abicah anezakhiwo ezinhle ze-dielectric, futhi izici zawo kagesi zishintsha kancane ngokushintsha kwezinga lokushisa nobuningi. Ukuhlala kwe-dielectric kuyehla ngokushisa okwandayo, kepha ushintsho lincane. Amandla kawoyela abicah aphansi, futhi ayenyuka ngokukhuphuka kwezinga lokushisa, kepha awukho umthetho ngokushintsha kwemvamisa. Ukwehla kwevolumu kuyehla njengoba izinga lokushisa likhuphuka.

Isine. i-hydrophobicity enhle

Yize uchungechunge olukhulu lwe-   uwoyela we-silicone wakhiwa isibopho se-polar Si-O, iqembu le-non-polar alkyl elisecaleni libheke ngaphandle, livimbela ama-molecule wamanzi ukuthi angene ngaphakathi futhi adlale indima ye-hydrophobic. Ukungezwani kokuhlangana kwamafutha abicah emanzini kungama-42 dyne / cm. Lapho usakazeka engilazini, ngenxa yokuphindaphindwa kwamanzi kawoyela we-silicone, i-engeli yokuxhumana engaba ngu-103oC iyakhiwa, efana ne-parafini wax.

Okuhlanu. i-coefficient yokushisa kwe-viscosity incane

I-viscosity kawoyela we-silicone iphansi, futhi ishintsha kancane ngokushisa, okuhlobene nokwakheka kwe-helical kwama-molecule ka-silicone kawoyela. Amafutha abicah anezici ezinhle kakhulu zokushisa kwe-viscosity phakathi kwamafutha ahlukahlukene oketshezi. Lesi sici samafutha abicah sibaluleke kakhulu ekunciphiseni imishini.

Isithupha. ukumelana okuphezulu

Ngenxa yezici zesakhiwo se-helical sama-molecule ka-oyili abicah kanye nebanga elikhulu phakathi kwama-molecule, inokumelana okuphezulu kokuminyanisa. Kusetshenziswa lesi sici samafutha abicah, ingasetshenziswa njengomthombo wamanzi. Uma kuqhathaniswa nentwasahlobo yemishini, ivolumu ingancishiswa kakhulu.

Isikhombisa. ukungezwani kobuso obuphansi

Ukungezwani okuphansi kobuso kuyisici samafutha abicah. Ukungezwani kobuso obuphansi kusho ukusebenza okuphezulu komhlaba. Ngakho-ke, uwoyela we-silicone unezakhiwo ezinhle kakhulu zokuphamba amagwebu nokulwa namagwebu, izakhiwo zokuzihlukanisa nezinye izinto, nezindawo zokuthambisa.

Isishiyagalombili. okungenabuthi, okungenambitheki kanye nokuma komzimba okwenziwe ngokomzimba

“Ngokombono womzimba, ama-silicone polymers angenye yezinto ezingasebenzi kakhulu ezaziwayo. ISimethicone ayisebenzi ezintweni eziphilayo futhi ayinakho ukusabela kokwenqaba ngemizimba yezilwane. Ngakho-ke, zisetshenziswe kabanzi eminyangweni efana nokuhlinzwa nemithi yangaphakathi, imithi, ukudla nezimonyo.

Isishiyagalolunye. i-lubricity enhle

Amafutha abicah anezinto eziningi ezinhle njenge-lubricant, njengephoyinti eliphakeme, iphoyinti lokushisa eliphansi, ukuzinza okushisayo, ushintsho oluncane lwe-viscosity ngamazinga okushisa, akukho ukugqwala kwezinsimbi, akukho miphumela emibi erabha, oplastikhi, ezinengilazi, amafilimu opende wokuphilayo, naphansi ukungezwani kobuso. Kulula ukusakazeka ebusweni bensimbi nezinye izici. Ukuze uthuthukise ukuthambisa kwe-steel-to-steel kawoyela we-silicon, izithasiselo ze-lubricity ezingadukiswa ngamafutha we-silicon zingangezwa. Ukwethula iqembu le-chlorophenyl ku-siloxane chain noma ukufaka iqembu le-trifluoropropylmethyl leqembu le-dimethyl kungathuthukisa kakhulu izakhiwo zokuthambisa zamafutha abicah.

Ishumi. Izici zamakhemikhali

Amafutha abicah ayisebenzi ngoba isibopho se-Si-C sizinzile kakhulu. Kepha ama-oxidants aqinile kulula ukusebenzisana nawo, ikakhulukazi emazingeni okushisa aphezulu. Amafutha abicah aphendula ngamandla ngegesi ye-chlorine, ikakhulukazi i-methyl silicone oil. Kwesinye isikhathi kuzoba nokusabela okuqhumayo. Isibopho se-Si-O siphuka kalula ngezisekelo eziqinile noma ama-acid. I-sulfuric acid egxilile iphendula ngokushesha emazingeni okushisa aphansi, yephula iketanga le-siloxane bese liyinamathisela kuyo. Mayelana nalokhu, uwoyela we-silicone onamaqembu aphezulu e-alkane namaqembu e-phenyl uzinzile ngokwengeziwe, kepha i-acid egxilile ye-sulfuric izokwephula ukubopha kwe-benzene-silicon yamaqembu e-phenyl futhi ikhulule i-benzene.

 


Isikhathi Iposi: Aug-23-2021